PUR Guide 2012 Fully Updated Version

Available NOW!

This comprehensive self-study certification course is designed to teach the novice or pro everything they need to understand and succeed in every phase of the public utilities business.

Order Now


Response to Brown Re: Net Metering

Is rooftop solar more like an independent power producer, subject to societal regulation and policy, such as wholesale-level regulation or retail-level resource planning? Or is the electricity that is produced a private consumer good, immune from regulation, policy, and planning?
Author Bio: 

Dr. Charles Cicchetti is a member of Pacific Economics Group, Inc. and the former Miller Chair of Government, Business and the Economy at the University of Southern California.

A response to the letter to the editor by Ashley Brown in our February 2016 issue.

Letters to the Editor (July 2012)

(July 2012) Thanks for your enlightening editorial about the problems of feed-in tariffs for photovoltaic installations and the distortions they are causing in cost responsibilities among electric utility customers. While these issues are an immediate and growing concern, an entirely different set of problems will emerge over the next decade as the share of renewables in total generation approaches the high levels being dictated by most regulatory authorities.

Letters to the Editor

Rooftop Tsunami

A growing wave of rooftop PV projects is starting to look ominous to some utilities. Will lawmakers accept utilities’ warnings at face value—or will they suspect they’re crying wolf?

Sidebar Title: 
Transition to a PV World
Sidebar Body: 

Keeping the lights on in a world of mushrooming solar rooftops requires several key technology and policy developments. During the 2012 EEI Annual Convention, panelists on a session titled “Distribution 2020: Implications of a Rapidly Evolving Distribution Grid,” offered several suggestions for managing the transition.

Technology requirements:

• Bi-directional smart grid

• New safety protocols

• Uniform interconnection standards

• Integrated distribution management systems (DMS)

Policy requirements:

• Focus incentives on installations in preferred locations

• Push the limits of demand response with direct load control

• Plan holistically—account for the total costs of distributed generation

• Apply formula rates to keep utilities whole

• Accelerate depreciation appropriately

Author Bio: 

Michael T. Burr is Fortnightly’s editor-in-chief. Email him at

Utilities sound the alarm as PV nears grid parity.

Solar Boost

Utilities are testing options for adding solar capacity to existing steam power plants. Concentrated solar thermal boosters increase plant efficiency and reduce emissions, while helping utilities to cost-effectively meet renewable mandates.

Figure 1. A 26-MW photovoltaic array is being added to Enel’s Stillwater geothermal plant in Nevada. Source: ENEL
FPL has been ramping up output at it the Martin plant’s 75-MW solar booster. The facility recently achieved 85 MW of capacity. Source: FPL
Sidebar Title: 
FPL Leads U.S. Industry
Sidebar Body: 

The first utility-scale solar hybrid in the United States was the 75-MW solar baseload addition to Florida Power & Light’s 3,705-MW Martin combined-cycle generating facility near Indiantown, Fla. The lead contractor was Rioglass America LLC. The solar unit, completed in 2010, includes 190,000 reflecting mirrors spread over 500 acres to concentrate light with basic parabolic, or trough concentrating technology, which is the most common type of concentrating solar installed in the United States.

The $398 million hybrid addition was approved in advance under a 2008 state law approving the construction of 110 MW of renewable energy in the state, according to Buck Martinez, a senior director of development at the utility. FPL covered the costs with balance-sheet funding, buoyed by an $850 million 30-year bond issue last year.

The Martin solar system has been ramping up production levels steadily. “Last month we hit 85 MW nominal, our highest production to date, and our goal is to get to 155,000 MWh in the near future,” says Martinez.

The plant hasn’t been without its startup problems; last year, a burst valve resulted in the loss of 46,000 gallons of heat transfer fluid, requiring the removal of some 1,000 truckloads of affected soil.–CWT

Sidebar Title: 
Tucson's Sundt Boost
Sidebar Body: 

Tucson Electric Power (TEP) recently opted to add a 5-MW solar peaker to its gas-fired 156-MW Unit IV at the Sundt Generating Station. When it comes on line during first quarter of 2013, the solar facility will provide a 4-percent boost to the unit’s output. Areva Solar will provide linear Fresnel concentrating solar technology, which uses reflectors to heat a linear tube filled with water.

Sundt Unit IV can operate either on coal or gas, and was burning coal until recently. “We were considering a retrofit at Sundt, but found there would be some complication on the coal side,” says Joseph Barrios, a TEP spokesman. “So we decided to try out the solar hybrid as a demonstration for something we might want to adopt in other facilities.”

At the announcement of the project, TEP CEO Paul Bonavia said, “Areva Solar’s innovative solar boost technology gives us a cost-effective, environmentally responsible way to expand the output of our largest local power plant without increasing emissions.”

Footprint was a consideration. “TEP also looked at a PV booster, and wanted to go larger, but 5-MW thermal was their limit because of land limitations on the metro outskirts of Tucson,” says John Robbins of Areva. The hybrid also will help TEP reach its goal of installing 200 MW of solar generation by 2014, which will allow it to meet Arizona’s 15-percent-by-2025 renewable energy standard. 

To pay for the development of the plant, TEP turned to its renewable energy surcharge collections from customers, which adds 0.7182 cents per metered kWh. But once the plant is operating in early 2013, the utility will seek rate base compensation from the Arizona Corporation Commission, Barrios says.

The cost per kW of the Fresnel-type plant is relatively low, compared to other solar thermal technology. “The cost for this type of plant typically would be in the $1.50 to $2 per installed watt range, compared with a stand alone cost of $3 to $3.50,” Robbins says.–CWT

Sidebar Title: 
Xcel's Solar Cameo
Sidebar Body: 

Xcel Energy in 2010 successfully tested a 2-MW, $4.5 million solar hybrid solution from Abengoa Solar, to boost efficiency by about 5 percent at its Cameo coal-fired plant near Grand Junction, Colo. The Cameo hybrid addition was approved in 2009 by the Colorado Public Utilities Commission, under an Innovative Clean Technology program.

The first of its kind in the United States, the hybrid test was designed largely to help reduce emissions, according to Xcel spokesman Gabriel Romero. Overall, more than 500,000 pounds of coal were saved during the year-long test, and 2,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions were avoided.

The measured goal of the installation was simple. “If solar provides 20 percent of the fuel for steam production, then you reduce coal consumption by 20 percent and you reduce dioxide emissions by 20 percent,” says Bruce Kelly, a technical specialist at Abengoa.

Temperatures of the food-grade oil heating fluid, heated in the 6.4 acre parabolic solar array, reached 576 degrees F. The heated fluid was used to preheat the feed water in the coal boiler, eliminating the need to divert heat from the steam turbine. “During daylight operation, solar replaces coal for much of the energy supply,” Kelly says. “As the radiation decreases during the late afternoon hours, the coal contribution replaces the solar contribution, allowing the boiler to operate at full load at all times. In the early morning hours, the process is done in reverse, gradually replacing the coal energy contribution to solar, while maintaining the technical minimum to optimize the operation of the coal boiler.”

While the Cameo test equipment has since been dismantled for use in a solar storage project elsewhere, the utility is considering other solar hybrids. At the time of the hybrid announcement, David Wilks, president of energy supply for Xcel Energy, said, “If this demonstration works, we may be able to implement this type of technological advance in other coal-fired power plants to help further reduce carbon dioxide emissions in Colorado and possibly other areas of our service territory.”

Toward that end, the vendor is currently promoting the technology. “Abengoa is now pursuing the concept where you put in solar-heated steam at the same conditions as the existing coal-heated steam plant already operates,” says Kelly.–CWT

Sidebar Title: 
Sun and Earth Combine
Sidebar Body: 

Thermal systems aren’t the only solar option for generators seeking to hybridize their power plants. Enel Green Power North America is building a 26-MW solar booster to complement its existing 33-MW binary-cycle, medium-enthalpy geothermal plant at Stillwater, Nev. The geothermal plant uses large-scale electric submersible pumps in the wells to pressurize and extract geothermal water. The pumps’ energy usage is partially offset by the 81,000 fixed polycrystalline-silicon PV panels, and excess generation will be sold to Las Vegas utility NV Energy under an 18-year power purchase agreement. 

Enel also is testing a solar-geothermal hybrid, in which a concentrating solar system would directly warm the heat transfer fluid that feeds the power-generation turbines.–CWT

Author Bio: 

Charles W. Thurston is a Fortnightly contributor based in Sonoma County, Calif.

Hybridizing fossil plants with solar thermal technology.